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تبلیغات
وردگ وېب پاڼې ته ښه راغلاست - Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad
دیني ټولنیزې ورځنۍ پښې له وردګ وېب پاڼې نه ولولۍ.
Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad

The great scholar of Pashto Literature, Researcher, Historian as well as Brilliant Writer and Poet of Afghanistan and The Region


Written by: Dr. Tariq (Rashad).
Compiled & Updated By: Mohammad Hamed (Mutawazae).

BIRTH DATE AND FAMILY ROOTS
Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad was born in an esteemed family on November 14th, 1921; right two years after his country got its independence from the Great Britain (1919), in Kandahar City, Bābaŗ�s Street. His family beside private business was also interested in education and adding to their knowledge. His late father Abdul Ghafoor Khan was a person who used to keep himself up to date with that time's required knowledge. Beside his mother language, Pashto, he spoke Persian, Arabic, Urdu and English. His late grandfather Haji Mohammad Ayaz Khan was a well known trader of his time. Ayaz Khan's father was Mohammad Jan Khan and his father Naik Mohammad Khan and his father was Saap Khan who owned 100, 000 golden coins. Saap Khan was one of the closest colleagues of the new Afghanistan's founder, Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah Durani) (1747-1773). This family was called kingmakers. As Noor Mohammad Khan Bābaŗ 1 who was working as income tax collecting officer and Gul Mohammad Khan Bābaŗ was responsible for the financial affairs of the country. Gul Mohammad Khan also had a family relation with King Ahmad Shah Baba as King's grandson Crown Prince Zaman who later became king after his father Temor Shah and was famous as Shah Zaman was his son-in-law.
Lt. Abdul Ghafoor Khan played a great role in raising his son, Abdul Shakoor Rashad. As Professor Rashad has mentioned in an interview with Gorbat Magazine: "My first teacher was my father. God bless him that he raised me but unfortunately he passed away while I was (13) and I couldn't take full advantages of his knowledge. But (69) year ago (Presently 73 years ago) I learned English alphabet from my father and also some brief Arabic books. I have learned some Persian books such Gulistan, Bustan also from my father. Of course I had some other teachers too, but my first teacher was my father". And also there was a paper called "Afghanistan", which was published in Lahore. This paper had a Pashto part and he used to study that as well.
PERSONALITY AND CHARACTERISTICS
Professor Rashad was living in northern side of Kabul City, called Khair Khana Meena (Part one). In his small house he has a huge guest room for his scholar friends, his students, friends and his admirers.
Scholars, writers and thinkers from all Afghan tribes came to see him, and seek his social, cultural and political advises on daily bases. His guest room had the capacity of serving tea, soft drinks for almost 50 people sitting on chairs, and listening to his historical, social, cultural and political advises on daily bases.
Professor Rashad had a smiling face and friendly attitude to all his visitors, students and admirers.
The Afghan, Pakistani, Indian, Iranian and other regional scholars including some Westerns diplomats and scholars used to come to him and pay their love and respect from Professor Rashad�s wide range of local and international knowledge, even every and different ruling party members of Afghanistan valued Professor Rashad�s wise advises for the benefits of Afghanistan�s national interest.
Professor Rashad never compromised his basic principle for any reason that is why Professor Rashad stays a very respectful scholar of Afghanistan.
 EDUCATION
Professor Rashad used to be an intelligent and smart student in his school and soon he graduated in (1933) with the first grade and in (1934), while he was (13) he was appointed as a teacher in school and started his first career. He was famous as "young teacher" and more interestingly even some of his students were older than him.
In (1948) he went to India for further education and continued his research in Pashto language. He wrote the book "Lodi Pashtoons" consisting of (351) pages and beside that he learned Hindi Languages and written (Dewanagary) in 6 months as well.
Academician Professor Rashad besides his native language (Pashto) spoke fluent Persian, Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Russian, English and knowledge of Sanskrit, Japanese and other regional languages and had written poems in Persian and Urdu languages as well. But he has devoted all his life in study and research of Pashto2 literature.
POLITICAL BELIEVES
Professor Rashad believed that all tribes of Afghan Society must get united instead of separation of tribalism. He strongly believed that Afghan must stay an Afghan and worked hard for National Unity of Afghan dignity, which unfortunately some or even most of the Afghan�s society so-called leaders encourages the tribal values among Afghans and Professor Rashad rejected this national division of the Great Afghan Society.
That is why his political theory had never been welcomed by those Afghans who believe in separation of Afghan Nation.
 POLITICAL ENDEAVOR
In (1946) he was appointed as Director of Kandahar City Selection Committee and in (1947) he became Deputy Mayor of Kandahar City.
In (1952) he was elected as a representative of "Weesh Zalmian" 3 (awaken youth) party from Kandahar Province to the parliament. Weesh Zalmian was the first party based on democratic principles in Afghanistan history. But due to the opposition of Governor Abdul Ghani Khan and the officials of that time, his vote box was confiscated by the police from the election bureau.
Professor Rashad became a member of Weesh Zalmian while he was (26). Even during Jihad (The Holy War) against Russians (27/12/1979 � 15/02/1989) and Civil War in Afghanistan, he always stayed in Kabul. He wrote some poems and articles critical of the puppet regime4His poems and articles were published by alias names for security reasons in unrelated and independent newspapers in California, Norway, Germany, India, Peshawar, Karachi, and other places. His poems and articles were also published in Kabul until 1992 (when Mujahedeen groups took control of Kabul and the civil war broke out), which symbolically condemned the puppet regime and encouraged the freedom movement in Afghanistan.
During the Taliban regime in a gathering, which was held to condemn the Russian invasion of Afghanistan he clearly stated that "I was a Weesh Zalmai and I am still and I will be. This party (Weesh Zalmian) is the first party, which encouraged the democratic values in Afghanistan" and shortly right after this statement, he left the gathering.
From his poetry and articles we can judge that he spent his life in opposition with the governmental officials because he could have never accepted unfairness and atrocities in his country. He also could not bear the invasion and occupation, and installation of puppet regimes, which were always controlled by the outside countries. He had always been a reformist and in favor of moderate policies. He revealed his opposition in public while he felt no serious danger and has stated his opposition in secret in an oppressed situation. That is why he was consistently under surveillance and watched and even threatened.
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS
In (195۷) he became a professional member of Pashto Tolana (Pashto Academy) and Pashto teacher at the Faculty of Language and Literature at the Kabul University and later became Assistant Director of Pashto Tolana while he held his position until his last breaths.
In (1961) he was appointed as a Pashto teacher in the Institute of Eastern Research in St. Petersburg (Previous Lenin Grad) and there he served for two and a half years. Later on he served again at Kabul University in the Faculty of Language and Literature as Professor and became the Chief of the Pashto Department..
In (1978), after the coup he was the first retired, but always kept close academic relations with the institutions, and never had any relation with the radical regime of that time.
TRAVELLING
Beside all his social and political problems in his country, he got the opportunity to travel to Japan, India, Pakistan, Yemen, USA, Saudi Arabia, and some other countries but returned home (Afghanistan), because he always preferred to stay in his fatherland although he was facing with lots of difficulties in his own country.
He lived in his country till the last day of his life, as he had said �Everyone loves his country but I love my country to death, I live in my country and will die in my country.�

PUBLICATIONS

Professor Rashad has written scientific and literature articles, which had been translated in many other languages of the world. He wrote his first poem in (1934) when he was only (13) and it was published in (1938).
His first research article was published in (1941) in Afghanistan.
Some collections of his poetry such as Mulhed Shahee, Tanzeem Shahee and Talib Shahee, which were published, condemned that time�s governmental policies.
His (59) books, prefaces and hundreds of articles, which have been published, are as mentioned below:
 

1.       His poetry collection from (1978) coup until (1992) Mulhed Shahee or Communist Shahee (infidel monarchy or communist monarchy), condemned that time's governmental policies.

2.        From (1992) till (1996) another poetry collection titled Tanzeem Shahee (partisan monarchy).

3.       After the fall of Taliban another poetry collection called Talib Shahee (Talib Monarchy).

4.       Lodi Pashtoons first part (351 pgs), published in 1958.

5.       Delhi in the Times of Pashtoons, preface, published in 1960.

6.       Three Stories of Lev Tolstoy (Pashto Translation), published in 1961.

7.       Pashto Textbook for Grade 11, published in 1961.

8.       Pashto Textbook for Grade 12, published in 1961.

9.       Hindi Poetry of De Ameer Khesraw Dehlawi, published in 1974.

10.   The Words of Khair-ul-Bayan preface, published in 1974.

11.  Three Articles on Khair-ul-Bayan Preface, published in 1974.

12.   Preface on Dawlat Lawani's Collection, published in 1974.

13.   Preface on some poems of Wasel Roshani and correction, published in 1974.

14.   Panini, Ashet Adheyaee Au Pe Hagha ke Pashto Kalemi (Pashto words in the Panini, Ashet Adheyaee), published in 1975.

15.   Preface on the Pashto Translation of Geet anjeli (written by Rabandranat Tagor, 104 pgs), published in 1975.

16.   Preface on the Pashto Translation of Taj (written by Rabandranat Tagor), published in 1975.

17.   Preface on Golden State Dictionary, published in 1977.

18.   Preface on Gulshani Roh (192 pgs), published in 1977.

19.   Preface on some poems of Ahmad Shah Baba with Explanations, published in 1978.

20.   Ahmad Shah Baba's Poetry Collection (Ghor Chan) published in 1978.

21.   Badee (the branch of rhetorics that deals with the aesthetical aspects of Pashto Poetry) for Teacher Training, published in 1980.

22.   Pashto Translation of Ibne Seena Makkharej Alhuroof.

23.   History of Pashto Tajweeds (74 pgs), published in 1980.

24.   Preface on names of God (Asmaul Husna'a), published in 1980.

25.   Mia Omar of Tsamkani, published in 1981.

26.   Preface on Poetry of Haji Juma Barakzai and wordlist, published in 1982.

27.   A Few Words on Afghanistan and British-India, published in 1982.

28.   Dictionary of Pata Khazana (Hidden Treasurs), published in 1983.

29.   About Zafar Nama Akbari and It�s Poet, published in 1986.

30.   The Bloody Event of Qesa Khwani, published in 1988.

31.   Ten Articles, published in 1988.

32.   Sobahash Chandrabos published in 1989.

33.   Da Zŗa Weini (Heart Blood), Poetry Collection, published in 1991.

34.   Da Afghanistan Badi Wrazi (Hard Days on Afghanistan), Poetry Collection, published in 1994.

35.   Loolapa Peghla (Burning Girl), Poetry Collection, published in 1995.

36.   Korosh Khoon Asham (Korosh�s blood-thirsty), Poetry Collection, published in 2000.

37.   Da Pashtano Ghamiza (Pashtoon's Sorrow), Poetry Collection, published in 2001.

38.   Khashmedalae Amrica (American rag), Poetry, published in 2002.

39.   Da Taodoweino Hamam Afghanistan (Warm bloody bath in Afghanistan), Poetry, published in 2003.

40.   Da Wāda Kaley Karbala So, etry Collection, published in 2003.

41.   Collection of Interviews about Historical Geography of Afghanistan, Part 1, published in 2004.

42.   To be misleads (Historical and Literatural), Part 1, published in 2004.

43.   Handless Woman (Translation of Lev Tolstoy), published in 2004.

44.   Great Ahmad Shah Baba in opinion of people, by academy of Afghanistan, published in 1991.

45.   Ronee Oshki (Bright Tears) collection of poems (120 pgs).

46.   Da Gulano Geedey (The bunch of flowers), 46 pgs.

47.   Da Baenawa Yad, 45 pgs.

48.   Adabi Nasruna (Literatures Prose), 61 pgs.

49.   Da Karnamoo Mairmani (The Heroines), 68 pgs.

50.   Nisabul Subian, Preface, 1982, 15 pgs.

51.   Fawayede Faqeerullah, Suspensions and Vocabulary,   81 pgs, 1980.

52.   About Pashto Japanese Dictionary.

53.   Verification, Annotation and Suspensions on Pashto translation of Hayyati Afghani.

54.   Preface, Vocabulary and Suspensions of Halnama.

55.   Prosodic Side of Pata Khazana.

56.   Preface of Tarekh � e � Sayyah Maseh.

57.   Preface of Zaman Shah and Sultan Tepo.

58.   Pashtoon Poets (third edition).

59.   Preface on Tabeenul Wajebat of Mulla Abdul Baqi.

His unpublished works

1.       Peshtana Shua'ara Pa Urdu Ke (Pashto Poets in Urdu): this book is the introduction of (383) Pashtoon Poets who have written poems in Urdu (850 pgs).

2.       Peshtana Shua'ara Pa Farsi Ke (Pashto Poets in Farsi): this book is the introduction of (200) Pashtoon Poets who have written poems in Farsi (700 pgs).

3.       Aya? (An aux. Word used for questions): this book indicates all common mistakes made in Pashto and Farsi Literature (500 pgs).

4.       Notes on Pashtoon clans and tribes, (670 pgs).

5.       Mustashreqeen (Orientalists), in this book, (200) scholars who have conducted research on East, Afghanistan, Pashto and Farsi are introduced (540 pgs).

6.        Amin-ul-Mulk Gul Mohammad Khan Ghorya Khel Babeŗ and his family who is grandfather of him (240 pgs).

7.        National Hero, Ghazi Mohammad Akbar Khan (230 pgs).

8.       Sori Pashtoons (400 pgs).

9.       Ghalib Jang Ghazi Nawab Ahmad Khan Bangash and his family (190 pgs).

10.   Kandahar School Textbooks (400 pgs).

11.   Hazrat-e-Abu Baker Seddiq (230 pgs).

12.   Pashto words in Old Persian and Awesta (this was written for Masters Degree in the Kabul University) (380 pgs).

13.   Kandahar Ziaratoona (Holy Sites) (700 pgs).

14.    Literature Dictionary (in 6 editions, 1st edition 1200 pgs, 2nd edition 630 pgs, 3rd edition 1250 pgs, 4th edition 600 pgs, 5th edition 650 pgs, 6th edition 120 pgs).

15.   Pashtana Musnifein (Pashtoon Authors) (in 3 editions, 1st edition 1000 pgs, 2nd edition 760 pgs, 3rd edition 580 pgs).

16.   Geographical Notes (in 2 editions, 1st edition 800 pgs and 2nd edition 360 pgs).

17.   Kandahar Historical Notes (in 2 editions, 1st edition (970 pgs) is about Kandahar before the Mughuls and 2nd edition (1040 pgs) is about Kandahar after Mughuls).

18.   The Ahmad Shah Era Heroes, in 2 editions, 1st edition (500 pgs) is about Ahmad Shahi Shahnami Tahliqat and the 2nd edition is about except Ahmad Shahi Shahnami other heros (420 pgs)).

19.   Pashtoon Famous Men (in 3 editions, 1st edition 150 pgs, 2nd edition 200 pgs and the 3rd edition was under work as Prof. Rashad passed away).

20.   Da Tareeqat Shajaree: This book explains the religious schools or ways, which are famous in Afghanistan and among Pashtoons (200 pgs).

21.   Nasabi Shajaree (Family Trees), in 5 editions, 1st edition (270 pgs) is about the famous and influential Pashtoon families in India, 2nd edition (90 pgs) is about Sadozaee Kings, Princes and dignitaries, 3rd edition (185 pgs) is about Mohammadzaee Kings, Princes and Dignitaries, 4th edition is about general Pashtoon tribes and clans and the 5th edition is also about general Pashtoon tribes (120 pgs).

22.   100 Proverbs in seven languages: this book is written in 4 editions and these proverbs are written in Pashto, Persian, Arabic, English, Russian, Urdu and Turkish languages.

23.   2000 Russian Proverbs in Pashto, this book is written in 4 editions, the 1st edition has 365 pgs, the 2nd edition has 450 pgs, the 3rd edition has 420 pgs and the 4th edition has 425 pgs.

24.   Da Khoshal Farhang: in 7 editions, 1st Teb Nama "medical guide" (400 pgs), 2nd Baznama (Hawks guide (260 pgs)), 3rd Rubayat au Qeta'at (quatrains and pieces) "poetry" (280 pgs), 4th Dastarnama "rules and customs of the tribe" (480 pgs), 5th Ghazalyat au Qasa'ed "poetry" (520 pgs), 6th Ghazalyat au Qasa'ed (320 pgs), 7th Ghazalyat au Qasa'ed (lyrics and odes poetry (360 pgs)).

25.   Da Pati Khazanee (Hidden Treasure) Dictionary, 2nd edition (400 pgs).

26.   Gulshane Roh Mini Dictionary (800 pgs).

27.   About Dictionaries: this book (560 pgs) explains all dictionaries of eastern languages as follows:

�  Pashto Dictionaries in Alphabet Order.

�  Persian Dictionaries in Alphabet Order.

�  Arabic Dictionaries in Alphabet Order.

�  Turkish Dictionaries in Alphabet Order.

�  Indian Dictionaries in Alphabet Order.

28.   Badee (the branch of rhetorics of Pashto Poetry) in 750 pages.

29.   Bayan (rhetoric) in 500 pgs.

30.   Qafia (Rhyme or rime) in 650 pgs.

31.   Urooz (Prosody) in 4 editions, 1st 1130 pgs, 2nd edition in 368 pgs, 3rd edition in 440 pgs and 4th edition in 95 pgs.

32.   Ma'ani (the branch of rhetoric, rhetoric meaning) in 650 pgs.

33.   Naqd (comments and critics on literature) About Pashto, Persian and Arabic literatures in scientific sections, 500 pgs.

34.   School Dictionary (this dictionary is about the vocabulary used in school textbooks consisting of some 6000 words explanations).

35.   Gulshane Roh ke da Babu Jan Muntakhabat Naser na dai, written for PHD degree. (The Babu Jan Selections in Gulshan Roh are not prose (240 pgs)).

36.   La'ala (Tulip), Collection of poems (150 pgs).

37.   Forty Published Hadis "Particularly the sayings of Prophet Mohammad (PBUOH).

38.   Da Muhabbat Naghmee (Lovely melodies), collection of poems (150 pgs).

39.   Nim did (unfinished meeting), collection of poems.

40.   Five collections of poems, 1st collection 62 pgs, 2nd collection 50 pgs, 3rd collection 126 pgs, 4th collection 62 pgs and the 5th collection 180 pgs.

41.   Shamsul-Kofat-e-Khwaja Bozorg Ahmad ben Hassan Meimandi (105 pgs) incomplete.

42.   Former President Martyr Mohammad Dawood Khan (60 pgs) incomplete.

43.   King Amanullah Shah Ghazi.

44.   100 words (old words).

45.   The grammar of Sanskrit Language (740 pgs).

46.   The grammar and information about Japanese Language this book is in 2 editions, 1st has 130 pgs and the 2nd has 165 pgs.

47.   The grammar of Russian Language, this book is in 2 editions, the 1st has 160 pgs and the 2nd has 170 pgs.

48.   Pa Pashto ke Munazaree (debate in Pashto) 75 pgs.

49.   Alefnamai (85 pgs).

50.   Prosodic system in Pashto poems (Pa Pashto Nazam ke Uroozi system) (450 pgs).

51.   Poems kinds in Pashto Language (290 pgs).

52.   Sabk-pezhandana (literatural styles or Methodology) 200 pgs.

53.   Irrelevant misleads in Doran�s Pashto Dictionary.

54.   To be Misleads in Pashto, Dari and Arabic books.

55.   Pashto Nakluna au Pashto Qesee (Pashto stories and fables).

56.   Some literatural speeches (200 pgs).

57.   Da Japan Safarnama (Log about Japan) (90 pgs).

58.   Da America Safarnama (Log about America) (100 pgs).

59.   Da Yemen Safarnama (Log about Yemen) (135 pgs).

60.   Baretsi Pashtana (Baretsi Pashtoons) (120 pgs).

61.   Participant Ayub Khan, incomplete.

62.   Barmakies (Barmakyan) (22 pgs) incomplete.

63.   Old Persian (50 pgs).

64.   Memorandum of Sociology (120 pgs).

65.   Pashtoon Poets in Arabic Language, incomplete.

66.   Clerks of Pashto Books (120 pgs).

67.   Suspensions (60 pgs).

68.   Suryanie�s Ode (40 pgs).

69.   Memorandum about Khushal Khan (100 pgs).

70.   Nawab Hafiz Rahmat Khan Bareatsey and his family.

71.   Arabic grammar (120 pgs).

72.   Sn�t Shaykh Qasim Sulaimani (120 pgs).

73.   Incomplete script about Tohfat-ul-Qasimi.

74.   Pronunciation of some words in Khoast, Zadran, Tani and Gurbez dialects, incomplete.

75.   Five books of different memorandums, (around 600 pgs).

76.              Suspension of Kabul war, written by Qasim Ali Dehlawi, incomplete.

77.              Pradi Dodoona (others traditions), 20 pgs.

78.              Words of �Fawayedi Dawa�, (150 pgs).

79.     Wahdatul Wujood, (40 pgs).

80.              Raqoom Nawesee.

Professor Rashad's unpublished books and research articles add up to 80 (Edition wise 116) and his published books are only (59). His hundreds of short articles and poems are also published in different periodicals in different times.
Family
Professor Rashad has left (4) sons and (5) daughters. His oldest son is Prof. Khaled Rashad who is a surgery specialist and has a private clinic and two Lunatic Asylums in Shimada City, Japan, Dr. Tariq Rashad, his second son, lives in Netherlands, Eng. Sher Shah Rashad also lives in Japan and his fourth son is Ahmad Shah Rashad who is a graduate of Literature Faculty, Pashto Section, presently resides in Los Angeles, USA. His youngest daughter Drs. Marghalara Rashad lives along with her family in Japan and Professor Rashad�s other (4) daughters along with his wife live in Afghanistan.
His two daughters Mrs. Najiba Rashad and Koko Rashad are also writing poetry and some of their poems are published in some periodicals.
Regional and Global Respect of Professor Rashad
According to his talent, interest, efforts and studies, Academician Professor Rashad has been recognized as a prominent scholar and teacher. Pashto Literature expert and historian late Candidate Academician and Researcher Mohammad Seddiq Rohi writes about Professor Rashad: "Due to his knowledge and experience in history, literature, and word analysis, Professor Rashad has been designated as (Respected Teacher). His vast knowledge and strong memory impress his listeners".
Professor Rashad who died (83) years old, has devoted most of his life to the moral side of his life, indiscriminately to all of Afghans and Non-Afghans human being equally, which concentrated on study and research of Pashto literature and history. His friends were his pen and books and he had been living them so far.
At the time he passed away he was the only source of troubleshooting in areas of Pashto and Persian classic literature. Professor Rashad was not famous due to his knowledge only but also because he had an outstanding character that was beloved among the entire Nation.

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1= Note: Brief introduction of the Bābaŗ Tribe. Ref: {Tauarikh � e � Khurshid � e � Jahan, written by: Sher Mohammad Gandapor.} .
2= Pashto is the language of the large percentage (65 %) of the people of Afghanistan and this language is also spoken in Pakistan, India and other parts of the world. Ref: �The Pattans� written by: Sir Alof Karo. .
3= Brief description of the movement of �Weesh Zalmian�, which started from Kabul (946). Ref: �Weesh Zalmian is a political movement� (1946 � 1973) written by: Mohammad Alam Batsarki. .
4= The Ex � Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Dec 27th, 1979. .

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